Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Logo_stics

Agroclim STICS


Economic and Environmental Analysis of Maize Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the French Rhône-Alpes Region

14 December 2017

Myriam Bounaffaa, Alessandro Florio, Xavier Le Roux, Pierre-Alain Jayet, Ecological Economics.

In the context of global agricultural challenges, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from the genus Azospirillum used to inoculate cereal seeds have attracted a lot of attention, mostly for their expected agronomic benefits. This study assesses the economic impact on farmers' profit from maize inoculation, along with the environmental impact in term of greenhouse gas emissions, in the Rhône-Alpes region of France. Yield-to‑nitrogen relationships predicted by the STICS crop model were modified to simulate the effect of inoculation on maize yield, and four inoculation costs (0, 20, 40 and 60 euros/ha) were considered to assess the private economic effect of inoculation. The environmental impact was assessed using a Bouwman-type N2O emission function, modified to account for the inoculation effect on soil N2O production according to soil characteristics. Yield and N2O emission functions were then implemented in the AROPAj farm-type, supply side-oriented model. Several scenarios were considered and probability density functions were selected for the yield function parameters according to field trial results. Our results show that, mainly due to a decrease in fertilizer use rather than to an increase in yield, farming systems in the Rhône-Alpes region could benefit from maize inoculation if the inoculation cost is lower than €20/ha. Regardless of inoculation cost, maize inoculation might reduce the amount of synthetic fertilizer used on farmlands. However, the private economic benefits could be lower if maize is cultivated on soils with a high carbon content, where inoculation increases N2O emission. In these types of soils, greenhouse gas emissions at the regional level could increase by 2 to 5%.

Site :