Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Logo_stics

Agroclim STICS


Operating principles

The STICS model simulates how a system that includes plant cover and soil (the portion that is occupied by roots) works.

The atmosphere in the vicinity of the system is represented by a set of climate variables that are derived from standard measurements (generally collected by weather stations) and have a forcing function.

In functional terms, STICS uses a dynamic approach with a daily time step to simulate crop growth based on the carbon balance of plant : the radiation intercepted by the photosynthetically active system, characterized by leaf area index, is transformed into biomass partitioned among the various organs.


This partitioning of assimilates depends on source–sink balances.

The STICS model is organized into informatics “modules,” each of which corresponds to a set of ecophysiological processes (phenological development, leaf growth, radiation interception and photosynthesis, yield and quality formation, root growth, water balance, soil nitrogen processes , microclimate, and heat, water and nitrate transfers).

The most strategic information is provided by the development module, because it drives crop growth by organizing, throughout the cycle, the opening and closing of sinks as well as sink strength.

The development module also acts on sources by controlling the establishment of the photosynthetically active system and activating remobilization to the storage organs.

The other information provided is “stress”-type information that is considered in STICS to be constraints on the potential functions of the cover.

Functioning principles of the soil-plant system in Stics
Functioning principles of Stics: climate, technical practices, soil, plant ant initialization

For inputs, the model requires climate variables that characterize, for each day in the simulation, the state of the atmosphere in the vicinity of the system: radiation, temperature, rain, etc.

The model also simulates the effect of agricultural practices on the system and thus requires input information such as sowing date (which will in part determine plant emergence), fertilizer types and rates, and irrigation schedule.

Lastly, the permanent features of the system are essential for capturing the specific ecophysiology of the crop under consideration (such as its potential radiation use efficiency) and soil properties (such as its moisture at the wilting point and at field capacity). In addition, the initial state of the system must be described, such as the water and nutrient contents in the soil or the initial state of the plant.

The outputs of STICS reflect the objectives of the model’s creation: outputs of agronomic interest such as the yield or quality of harvested organs (sugar content, oil content, etc.) and outputs appropriate for providing an environmental balance for the crop (amount of nitrate leaching, N2O emissions, etc.).