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Last update: May 2021

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Plantes et Système de cultures Horticoles

Zone de texte éditable et éditée et rééditée

Analyze the intra- and interspecific diversity

Analyze the intra- and interspecific diversity in plant adaptation strategies to abiotic factors, in order to identify processes / traits of adaption at the plant and organ scales. The main traits examined relate to root and aerial architecture, growth and metabolism of the fruit and leaf. Our objective is to understand and quantify this diversity in order to identify traits and genetic resources of potential interest for adaptation to low input production systems, and also to parameterize our models that can then be used to analyze the GxE interactions and to design plant/crop ideotypes. This work is done in collaboration with geneticists, physiologists, and team 4 of PSH.

Some results of our work:

Water deficit may be a lever to improve fruit taste and health value, provided that the negative effects on yield are limited (reduction in the number and size of fruits) (Ripoll et al., 2014). Thus analyzing the genetic variability of the response to water deficit allows us to identify adaptation mechanisms and to select genotypes of interest. In this work, several genotypes (population of recombinant lines and MAGICTOM parents) of tomato were phenotyped in well-irrigated condition and in condition of water deficit. The results show a great variability of the response at the plant and fruit scale. Large-fruit genotypes are relatively more sensitive than small-berry genotypes, suggesting a strong interaction between water stress and induced carbon stress. The effects on quality are extremely variable according to the genotypes: fruit taste related to the accumulation of sugars and acids is either improved or unaltered under water deficit. The effects on the accumulation of compounds involved in the health value (Vit.C and carotenoids in particular) are nil or negative (Ripoll et al., 2016a, 2016b). This variability needs to be more deeply investigated to understand the processes involved in the differences between sensitive and non-sensitive genotypes. This point has been addressed using process-based models and can serve as a basis for designing ideotypes. The first results suggest that active transport of sugars and hydraulic properties of the pedicel are of paramount importance (Constantinescu et al., 2016).

At the root system level, a dynamic and quantitative study of root architecture of Solanaceae was carried out on 29 genotypes from three groups (eggplant, pepper and tomato). Quantitative traits were mainly measured on high-resolution images of different parts of the plant. Several traits show significant genetic variation: root apical diameter (reflecting meristem size), diameter ratio between lateral roots and main roots, inter-branching distances and slopes of regressions between apical diameter and elongation rate. In all genotypes, correlations exist between root traits and aerial traits, which reveal developmental compromises and coordination among plant parts (Bui et al., 2015).