Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Plant pathology unit - INRA AVIGNON

Pathologie vegetale

Zone de texte éditable et éditée et rééditée

Etiology of emerging viral diseases

Viruses infecting vegetable and horticultural crops constitute a mosaic of complex pathosystems due to the important number of cultivated species at risk, the diversity of cropping systems (open field, greenhouse, soil-less, conventional, integrated organic production) and the large number of different virus species infecting each crop species. In the last few years, in France as well as in other countries, a rapid evolution of these pathosystems has been observed in relation to many factors: intensification of worldwide commercial exchanges, rapid turn-over of cultivars, and changes in climate and cultural practices. An accurate knowledge of the pathosystem and its evolution, as well as good diagnostic tools, are required to anticipate and prevent/limit the impact of virus emergences. Virology team is also involved in the lavender decline associated with phytoplasma.

Tobamoviruses are common in pepper-derived food products

Tobamoviruses are common in

pepper-derived food products

In collaboration with URMITE (Research unit on emerging infectious and tropical diseases) in Marseille, this team have also studied if plant viruses could have an impact on human health. Although no clear pathogenicity of plant viruses was demonstrated, this work showed that tobamoviruses are common in human stool, tobacco and pepper-derived food products. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.


  • Balique, F., Colson, P., Barry, A. O., Nappez, C., Ferretti, A., Moussawi, K. A., Ngounga, T., Lepidi, H., Ghigo, E., Mege, J.-L., Lecoq, H., Raoult, D. (2013). Tobacco mosaic virus in the lungs of mice following intra-tracheal inoculation. Plos One, 8, e54993. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0054993
  • Balique, F., Colson, P., Raoult, D. (2012). Tobacco mosaic virus in cigarettes and saliva of smokers. Journal of Clinical Virology, 55, 374-376. DOI : 10.1016/j.jcv.2012.08.012
  • Balique, F., Lecoq, H., Raoult, D., Colson, P. (2015). Can plant viruses cross the kingdom border and be pathogenic to humans?. Viruses, 7, 2074-2098. DOI : 10.3390/v7042074
  • Colson, P., Richet, H., Desnues, C., Balique, F., Moal, V., Grob, J.-J., Berbis, P., Lecoq, H., Harlé, J.-R., Berland, Y., Raoult, D. (2010). Pepper mild mottle virus, a plant virus associated with specific immune responses, fever, abdominal pains, and pruritus in humans. Plos One, 5, e10041. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0010041
  • Moury, B., Fabre, F., Hébrard, E., Froissart, R. (2017). Determinants of host species range in plant viruses. Journal of General Virology, 98, 862-873. DOI : 10.1099/jgv.0.000742