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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

http://www.paca.inra.fr/institut-sophia-agrobiotech_eng/

Deciphering the role of effectors during plant infection and the chromatin-based control of their expression in Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus causing stem canker of oilseed rape

Thursday, May 24 - 11:00 - Sophia Antipolis - Inra PACA - Room A010

Séminaire scientifique
As part of the scientific animation of Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, IPO team invite Isabelle Fudal, UMR BIOGER, INRA, AgroParisTech, F78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France: "Deciphering the role of effectors during plant infection and the chromatin-based control of their expression in Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus causing stem canker of oilseed rape"

Abstract

Leptosphaeria maculans, an ascomycete causing stem canker, colonises oilseed rape in two stages: an early stage of leaf colonisation and a late stage of systemic stem colonisation without visible symptom before stem canker appears. L. maculans produces at least two waves of effectors, key elements of pathogenesis facilitating host invasion. L. maculans presents a bipartite genome structure alternating gene-rich and transposable element (TE)-rich regions. While TE-rich regions are enriched in putative effector genes strongly over-expressed during early infection, gene-rich regions contain putative effector genes specifically expressed during late infection. We investigated:
(i) the involvement of L. maculans effectors in pathogenicity and their interaction with R genes using a combination of structural biology and functional genomics. We investigated the 3-D structure of L. maculans effectors, the plant compartments in which effectors were acting during plant infection and the plant processes and plant proteins that were manipulated by L. maculans effectors in order to get a better image on host functions that are targeted by a pathogenic fungus.
(ii) the regulation of L. maculans effector genes, including the chromatin-based control of their expression. We investigated influence of reversible histone modifications affecting genomic regions sheltering different sets of effector genes on their concerted expression. We analysed nucleosome positioning, location of histone modifications and gene expression at the genome scale combining MAINE-seq, ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data during axenic growth and performed functional analysis of two chromatin modifiers (KMT1 and KMT6). Our data suggest that a chromatin-based control, mediated by KMT1 and KMT6, represses the expression of at least part of the  effector genes during growth in axenic culture. Our hypothesis is that changes of lifestyle and a switch toward pathogenesis lift chromatin-mediated repression, allowing a rapid response to new environmental conditions.