Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Logo Marque Etat - République Française Logo_INRAE_noir Logo Université Côte d'Azur CNRS

Home page

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

Deciphering the role of effectors during plant infection and the chromatin-based control of their expression in Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus causing stem canker of oilseed rape

Thursday, May 24 - 11:00 - Sophia Antipolis - Inra PACA - Room A010

Séminaire scientifique
As part of the scientific animation of Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, IPO team invite Isabelle Fudal, UMR BIOGER, INRA, AgroParisTech, F78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France: "Deciphering the role of effectors during plant infection and the chromatin-based control of their expression in Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus causing stem canker of oilseed rape"


Leptosphaeria maculans, an ascomycete causing stem canker, colonises oilseed rape in two stages: an early stage of leaf colonisation and a late stage of systemic stem colonisation without visible symptom before stem canker appears. L. maculans produces at least two waves of effectors, key elements of pathogenesis facilitating host invasion. L. maculans presents a bipartite genome structure alternating gene-rich and transposable element (TE)-rich regions. While TE-rich regions are enriched in putative effector genes strongly over-expressed during early infection, gene-rich regions contain putative effector genes specifically expressed during late infection. We investigated:
(i) the involvement of L. maculans effectors in pathogenicity and their interaction with R genes using a combination of structural biology and functional genomics. We investigated the 3-D structure of L. maculans effectors, the plant compartments in which effectors were acting during plant infection and the plant processes and plant proteins that were manipulated by L. maculans effectors in order to get a better image on host functions that are targeted by a pathogenic fungus.
(ii) the regulation of L. maculans effector genes, including the chromatin-based control of their expression. We investigated influence of reversible histone modifications affecting genomic regions sheltering different sets of effector genes on their concerted expression. We analysed nucleosome positioning, location of histone modifications and gene expression at the genome scale combining MAINE-seq, ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data during axenic growth and performed functional analysis of two chromatin modifiers (KMT1 and KMT6). Our data suggest that a chromatin-based control, mediated by KMT1 and KMT6, represses the expression of at least part of the  effector genes during growth in axenic culture. Our hypothesis is that changes of lifestyle and a switch toward pathogenesis lift chromatin-mediated repression, allowing a rapid response to new environmental conditions.