Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Logo Marque Etat - République Française Logo_INRAE_noir Logo Université Côte d'Azur CNRS

Home page

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

Insect symbionts: a hidden trophic level in insect-plant interactions

Friday, October 24 at 11:00 - Sophia Antipolis - Inra PACA - Room A010

Enric Frago - Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University - invited by TEAPEA team: "Insect symbionts: a hidden trophic level in insect-plant interactions"


Recent evidence suggests that insect symbionts may be more important hidden-players in insect-plantinteractions than is currently realised. In the last decade, it has become apparent that facultativesymbionts (i.e. not required for host survival) can be important mediators of direct and indirectinteractions between insects, their host plants and their natural enemies. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphonpisum) is the main model organism for studying the role of facultative symbionts in insect herbivores.In this species facultative symbionts provide their hosts with several services. Hamiltonella defensa, forexample, protects aphids from parasitic wasps, an effect that has been extensively studied in thelaboratory. The role of this bacteria in a wider community context, however, remains relativelyunexplored. In a series of field and laboratory experiments, I will address costs, benefits and trophicweb consequences of pea aphid infection with H. defensa. I will also explore whether effects in thetrophic web indirectly affect other insect species (aphids in particular) through shared natural enemies(i.e. apparent competition) or shared host plants. Results suggest insect symbionts can be an importanthidden trophic level in plant-based insect communities.