Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Logo Marque Etat - République Française Logo_INRAE_noir Logo Université Côte d'Azur CNRS

Home page

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

12 July 2018

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.
Assessment and comparison of the solar radiation distribution inside the main commercial photovoltaic greenhouse types in Europe


The application of the photovoltaic (PV) energy to the European greenhouse industry has led to installations designed to maximise the energy production but detrimental for the greenhouse crops, due to the effect of shading of the PV panels on the roof. To assess these issues, the first step is to characterize the PV greenhouse microclimate, especially in terms of solar radiation at canopy level. After a comprehensive review of the current state-of-art of the PV greenhouse sector, four representative commercial PV greenhouse types are compared, with a percentage of the area covered with PV panels (PV cover ratio) ranging from 25% to 100%. The aim is to define the general relations between the main design parameters (PV cover ratio, greenhouse height and orientation, checkerboard pattern) and the available solar radiation, to provide original information on the design of next-generation PV greenhouses with improved agronomic sustainability. The yearly global radiation decreased averagely by 0.8% for each additional 1.0% PV cover ratio and increased by 3.8% for each further meter of gutter height. The N-S orientation increased the average cumulated global radiation on the greenhouse area by 24%, compared to the E-W orientation. Both the checkerboard pattern and the N-S orientation improved the uniformity of light distribution. All PV greenhouse types are provided with light distribution maps to evaluate the light variability on the greenhouse area. The light distribution is crucial to support adequate agronomic plans for both preexisting and new PV greenhouses, aiming to sustainable mixed systems for both energy and crop production.


Renewable energy, Solar radiation, Shading, Sustainability, Crop, Horticulture

Cossu, M., Cossu, A., Deligios, P.A., Ledda, L., Li, Z., Fatnassi, H., Poncet, C., and Yano, A. (2018). Assessment and comparison of the solar radiation distribution inside the main commercial photovoltaic greenhouse types in Europe. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 94, 822–834. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.06.001

Site : View online >>