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Front. Physiol. - Invertebrate physiology

28 February 2017

Front. Physiol. - Invertebrate physiology
© Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved
Modification of Flight and Locomotion Performances, Respiratory Metabolism, and Transcriptome Expression in the Lady Beetle Harmonia axyridis through Sublethal Pesticide Exposure

Abstract

Biological control is usually used in combination with chemical control for practical agricultural applications. Thus, the influence of insecticides on the natural predators used for biological control should be investigated for integrated pest management. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is an effective predator on aphids and coccids. Beta-cypermethrin is a broad-spectrum insecticide used worldwide for controlling insect pests. H. axyridis is becoming increasingly threatened by this insecticide. Here, we investigated the effect of a sublethal dose of beta-cypermethrin on flight, locomotion, respiration, and detoxification system of H. axyridis. After exposure to beta-cypermethrin, succinic female adults flew more times, longer distances, and during longer time periods. Exposure to a sublethal dose of beta-cypermethrin also promoted an increase in walking rate, walking distance, walking duration, and also an increase in respiratory quotient and respiratory rate. To investigate the effects of beta-cypermethrin on H. axyridis detoxification system, we analyzed the transcriptome of H. axyridis adults, focusing on genes related to detoxification systems. De novo assembly generated 65,509 unigenes with a mean length of 799 bp. From these genes, 26,020 unigenes (40.91% of all unigenes) exhibited clear homology to known genes in the NCBI non-redundant database. In addition, 10,402 unigenes were annotated in the Cluster of Orthologous Groups database, 12,088 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology database and 12,269 unigenes were in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) database. Exposure to beta-cypermethrin had significant effects on the transcriptome profile of H. axyridis adult. Based on uniquely mapped reads, 3,296 unigenes were differentially expressed, 868 unigenes were up-regulated and 2,248 unigenes were down-regulated. We identified differentially-expressed unigenes related to general detoxification systems in H. axyridis. This assembled, annotated transcriptome provides a valuable genomic resource for further understanding the molecular basis of detoxification mechanisms in H. axyridis.

Xiao, D., Tan, X., Wang, W., Zhang, F., Desneux, N., and Wang, S. (2017). Modification of Flight and Locomotion Performances, Respiratory Metabolism, and Transcriptome Expression in the Lady Beetle Harmonia axyridis through Sublethal Pesticide Exposure. Front. Physiol. 8. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00033

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