Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Logo Marque Etat - République Française Logo_INRAE_noir Logo Université Côte d'Azur CNRS

Home page

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

The first gene with complete-spectrum resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) Meloidogyne spp. has been cloned in Prunus.

The first gene with complete-spectrum resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) Meloidogyne spp. has been cloned in Prunus. (IPN Team)

Stone fruit crops (Prunus spp.) are severely attacked by the highly polyphagous root-knot nematodes RKN Meloidogyne spp. (notably M. arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica) and several natural resistance (R) genes, as an alternative to nematicide ban, have been identified and mapped. Because the longevity of these perennial species prolongs the plant-nematode interaction and greatly increases the risk of resistance breakdown, R genes are being pyramided into new Prunus rootstocks. Among them, the Ma gene, triggering a hypersensitive-like reaction with a complete absence of galls, confers a high-level and complete-spectrum resistance and is thus a key component for sustainable control of all RKN. This gene, a member of the TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) class of genes, has been cloned by a positional approach and validated using Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. Its structure is characterized by a huge C-terminal region with five duplicated post-LRR (PL) domains that makes it the longest R gene cloned to date.Mais the second RKN gene cloned (after the tomato Mi reference gene) and the first one with a complete spectrum.

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) symptoms on susceptible plant (left) and resistant plant with the Ma gene (right)

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) symptoms on susceptible plant (left) and resistant plant with the Ma gene (right)

  • Claverie M., Dirlewanger E., Bosselut N., Van Ghelder C., Voisin R., Kleinhentz M., Lafargue B., Abad P., Rosso M.N., Chalhoub B., Esmenjaud D. (2011) The Ma gene for complete-spectrum resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in Prunus is a TNL with a huge repeated C-terminal post-LRR region.Plant Physiology156:779-792.
  • Khallouk, S., Voisin, R., Van Ghelder, C., Engler, G., Amiri, S., Esmenjaud, D. (2011). Histological mechanism of the resistance conferred by the Ma gene against Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus.Phytopathology101: 945-951.
  • Bosselut N., Van Ghelder C., Claverie M., Voisin R., Onesto J.P., Rosso M.N., Esmenjaud D. (2011) Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Prunus as an alternative for gene functional analysis in hairy-roots and composite plants.Plant Cell Reports30:1313-1326.