Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Logo Marque Etat - République Française Logo_INRAE_noir Logo Université Côte d'Azur CNRS

Home page

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

Soutenance de thèse - Flora AUBREE

Lundi 8 Novembre 2021 - 9:30 - Visioconférence par ZOOM

Soutenance de thèse
Flora AUBREE : "Adaptation dans un monde en mouvement : Adaptation des communautés et relations biodiversité-fonctionnement des écosystèmes, hétérogénéité spatiale et évolution de la tolérance au stress, migration pulsée et adaptation locale"


The world is changing at an unprecedented rate in many interconnected aspects, and ecosystems are primarily concerned. The current shift in environmental conditions is accompanied by an increase in the temporal variability of environmental processes, which is also driven by anthropogenic activities. This work is part of the effort to understand how variability in key environmental processes impacts ecosystem composition and ecological and evolutionary functioning at different scales. The focus is made in particular on the interplay between such variability and the process of adaptation, which is a key aspect of ecosystem dynamics. Adaptation is integral to the functioning of ecosystems, yet it is still relatively little considered. In this thesis, three biological scales are considered – the scale of the community, the scale of the species, and the scale of populations. A theoretical modeling approach is used to introduce some aspects of variability and investigate how ecological and evolutionary dynamics are impacted.
At the community scale, the impact that changes in the species co-adaptation level may have on some biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships (diversity-productivity, diversity-stability and diversity-response to invasion relationships) is questioned. Random and co-adapted communities are compared using adaptive dynamics methods. Results show that species co-adaptation impacts most BEF relationships, sometimes inverting the slope of the relationship. At the species scale, the evolution of stress tolerance under a tolerance-fecundity trade-off model is explored using adaptive dynamics as well. The evolutionary outcomes are determined under different trade-offs and different stress distributions. The most critical parameters in determining the evolutionary outcomes (ESS trait value, branching) are highlighted, and they evidence that stress level heterogeneity is more critical than average stress level. At the population scale, gene flow between sub-populations of the same species is an important determinant of evolutionary dynamics. The impact that temporally variable migration patterns have on gene flow and local adaptation is questioned using both mathematical analyses and stochastic simulations of a mainland-island model. In this model, migration occurs as recurrent “pulses”. This migration pulsedness is found to not only decrease, but also increase, the effective migration rate, depending on the type of selection. Overall, migration pulsedness favors the fixation of deleterious alleles and increases maladaptation. Results also suggest that pulsed migration may leave a detectable signature across genomes.
To conclude, these results are put into perspective, and elements are proposed for possible tests of the predictions with observational data. Some practical consequences they may have for ecosystem management and biological conservation are also discussed.


Adaptive dynamics, Eco-evolutionary dynamics, Species interactions, Population genetics, Temporally variable migration, Gene flow, Local adaptation, Stochastic simulations


  • György Barabas – Assistant Professor – Department of Physics, Chemistry andBiology, Group of Theoretical Biology – Linköping University
  • Vincent Calcagno – Directeur de Recherche INRAE – Laboratoire ISA (Institut Sophia Agrobiotech) – Université Côte d’Azur
  • Vincent A.A. Jansen – Professor – Royal Holloway University of London
  • Ludovic Mailleret – Directeur de Recherche INRAE – Laboratoires ISA (Institut Sophia Agrobiotech), Inria Sophia Antipolis – Université Côte d’Azur
  • Virginie Ravigné – Chargée de Recherche CIRAD (HDR) – UMR PHIM (PlantHealth Institut Montpellier) Montferrier-sur-lez – Université de Montpellier
  • Elisa Thébault – Chargée de Recherche CNRS – Laboratoire iEES-Paris (Institut d’Ecologie et des Sciences de l’Environnement de Paris) – Sorbonne université