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Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

http://www.paca.inra.fr/institut-sophia-agrobiotech_eng/

Soutenance de thèse - Flora AUBREE

Lundi 8 Novembre 2021 - 9:30 - Visioconférence par ZOOM

Soutenance de thèse
Flora AUBREE : "Adaptation dans un monde en mouvement : Adaptation des communautés et relations biodiversité-fonctionnement des écosystèmes, hétérogénéité spatiale et évolution de la tolérance au stress, migration pulsée et adaptation locale"

Abstract

The world is changing at an unprecedented rate in many interconnected aspects, and ecosystems are primarily concerned. The current shift in environmental conditions is accompanied by an increase in the temporal variability of environmental processes, which is also driven by anthropogenic activities. This work is part of the effort to understand how variability in key environmental processes impacts ecosystem composition and ecological and evolutionary functioning at different scales. The focus is made in particular on the interplay between such variability and the process of adaptation, which is a key aspect of ecosystem dynamics. Adaptation is integral to the functioning of ecosystems, yet it is still relatively little considered. In this thesis, three biological scales are considered – the scale of the community, the scale of the species, and the scale of populations. A theoretical modeling approach is used to introduce some aspects of variability and investigate how ecological and evolutionary dynamics are impacted.
At the community scale, the impact that changes in the species co-adaptation level may have on some biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships (diversity-productivity, diversity-stability and diversity-response to invasion relationships) is questioned. Random and co-adapted communities are compared using adaptive dynamics methods. Results show that species co-adaptation impacts most BEF relationships, sometimes inverting the slope of the relationship. At the species scale, the evolution of stress tolerance under a tolerance-fecundity trade-off model is explored using adaptive dynamics as well. The evolutionary outcomes are determined under different trade-offs and different stress distributions. The most critical parameters in determining the evolutionary outcomes (ESS trait value, branching) are highlighted, and they evidence that stress level heterogeneity is more critical than average stress level. At the population scale, gene flow between sub-populations of the same species is an important determinant of evolutionary dynamics. The impact that temporally variable migration patterns have on gene flow and local adaptation is questioned using both mathematical analyses and stochastic simulations of a mainland-island model. In this model, migration occurs as recurrent “pulses”. This migration pulsedness is found to not only decrease, but also increase, the effective migration rate, depending on the type of selection. Overall, migration pulsedness favors the fixation of deleterious alleles and increases maladaptation. Results also suggest that pulsed migration may leave a detectable signature across genomes.
To conclude, these results are put into perspective, and elements are proposed for possible tests of the predictions with observational data. Some practical consequences they may have for ecosystem management and biological conservation are also discussed.

Keywords

Adaptive dynamics, Eco-evolutionary dynamics, Species interactions, Population genetics, Temporally variable migration, Gene flow, Local adaptation, Stochastic simulations

Jury

  • György Barabas – Assistant Professor – Department of Physics, Chemistry andBiology, Group of Theoretical Biology – Linköping University
  • Vincent Calcagno – Directeur de Recherche INRAE – Laboratoire ISA (Institut Sophia Agrobiotech) – Université Côte d’Azur
  • Vincent A.A. Jansen – Professor – Royal Holloway University of London
  • Ludovic Mailleret – Directeur de Recherche INRAE – Laboratoires ISA (Institut Sophia Agrobiotech), Inria Sophia Antipolis – Université Côte d’Azur
  • Virginie Ravigné – Chargée de Recherche CIRAD (HDR) – UMR PHIM (PlantHealth Institut Montpellier) Montferrier-sur-lez – Université de Montpellier
  • Elisa Thébault – Chargée de Recherche CNRS – Laboratoire iEES-Paris (Institut d’Ecologie et des Sciences de l’Environnement de Paris) – Sorbonne université