Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Logo Marque Etat - République Française Logo_INRAE_noir Logo Université Côte d'Azur CNRS

Home page

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech

UMR INRA - Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis - Cnrs

http://www.paca.inra.fr/institut-sophia-agrobiotech_eng/

PhD Defense - David MURU

Friday 26 March 2021 - 14:00 - Visio ZOOM

PhD Defense
David MURU : "Magic bullet or shot in the dark? Potential and limits of biological control for experimental ecology"

Abstract :

Biological control (or biocontrol) is the use of living organisms to suppress the population density or impact of a specific pest organism, making it less abundant or less damaging than it would otherwise be. The biological control agent may directly or indirectly interact with more than just the target pest and vice versa. Therefore, monitoring its populations, in conjunction to other ecological factors, may allow to confirm or discard ecology theories or unveil brand new interactions with both abiotic and biotic facets of the recipient ecosystem. Moreover, the methodological aspects of the post release monitoring phase and those of ecological experimentations sometimes do share similarities. In this work I explore how both disciplines -are reconciled and how the resulting data from biocontrol could be optimized for its use in ecology. I use data from biological control programs to address questions related to invasion dynamics, community ecology and landscape ecology. In chapter 1, I detail the case studies: (i) the introduction of the parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) against the Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) ; (ii) the introduction of the ectoparasitoid Mastrus ridens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) against the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ; (iii) a nation-wide survey of Trichogramma species in France in order to characterize the ecological ranges of each species; (iv) the description of egg parasitoid species associated with Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) at a fine temporal scale. Chapter 2 is focused on understanding the dispersal of T. sinensis at the scale of several chestnut producing areas. In this chapter, I use monitoring data from release sites to fit a growth model for populations of T. sinensis in order to infer the time since colonization in naturally colonized sites. In chapter 3 I investigate the impacts of the successful control of D. kuriphilus by T. sinensis on the structure of native parasitoid community that recently became associated with the pest. Chapter 4 is focused on cases where scientific valorization ranges from a complete failure (primo-introduction of M. ridens), the diffusion of naturalist knowledge (survey of I. podalirius and related oophagous parasitoids) and/or the identification of some patterns using specific statistics (national survey of Trichogramma species). Finally, by compiling knowledge from the extensive literature on biological control and field experience I then discuss on the potentials and limits of biological control programs for experimental ecology. I conclude that although biological control gives an ecological context to experimentation by allowing to manipulate a wide variety of factors, the context and the organisms at play may not be compatible with any ecological issue. For example, the obvious parallel between classical biological control and invasion biology makes the former extremely useful to study ecological processes that drive the success of invasions. This in turn could yield knowledge that may have implication in other disciplines such as the preservation of endangered species. However, factors like the low detectability of a biological control agent at low densities (coupled with varying sensibility of monitoring methods) may render the study of early stages dynamics and interactions too much of a daunting endeavor. Key words : Biological control, Experimental ecology, Community ecology, Population dynamics, Classical biocontrol. 

Jury :

Thierry Hance : President du jury et rapporteurHélène Delatte : rapportriceLise Roy : examinatriceElodie Vercken : directrice de thèseNicolas Ris : co-directeur de thèse